Thursday, May 28, 2020

Case of Diane Pretty before European Court of Human Rights - 1650 Words

The Case of Diane Pretty before the European Court of Human Rights (Essay Sample) Content: My opinion of the caseNameInstitutional AffiliationMY OPINION OF THE CASEThe Case of Diane Pretty before the European Court of Human RightsOn 29th November 2001, the House of Lords gathered together to consider the case of Diane Pretty. Considering the issue had been presented in the high court about a month prior specifically on 18th October 2001, this was fast without a doubt. The explanation or justification certainly was that Mrs. Pretty suffered from motor neurone disease. According to Cour Europenne Des Droits DE LHomme European Court of Human Rights (2002) and Lord Bingham of Cornhill, this was a gradual irreversible deterioration, and loss of function in the organs or tissues disease from which (Mrs. Pretty) had no expectation of healing. With only a short duration to live, Mrs. Pretty faced the possibility or likelihood of a shameful and upsetting death. Mrs. Pretty was psychologically conscious and wanted the chance to be allowed to decide how her death woul d come about and at a point and time of her choice. It is worth noting that not only was the director of public prosecution (DPP) privy to the details of the case, but also the home secretary as well as the court also obtained printed submissions from a Roman Catholic Archbishop including the medical ethics association, the society for the safety of unborn children and alert.Whats more, Mrs. Pretty wanted her partner to assist her in her death if her wish was granted. It is important to note that her husband wanted to help out, however, only if he was certain that he was not going to be put on trial in accordance with subsection 2(1) of the Suicide Act 1961 for helping and supporting his wifes suicide. Mrs. Pretty wanted the Director of Public Prosecutions to agree to her request that he would not take legal action against Mr. Pretty if he assisted her to take her own life; however, the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) declined to grant a go-ahead for such an activity. Mrs. Pre tty went ahead to apply for a judicial evaluation of that denial, and the Queens Bench Divisional Court supported the Director of Public Prosecutions judgment. According to Costa (2003), Diane Pretty maintained she had a moral authority to her spouses help in carrying out suicide which means that if subsection 2 of the 1961 Act, forbids his assistance and does not stop the chief in charge to take legal action then it is contrary to the European Convention on Human Rights [ECHR].My opinionArticle 3 preserves that one of the primary values of self-governing societies as well as its ban on the excluded treatment is unconditional. Therefore, it can be argued or concluded that it is independent to Article 2. This is because Article 2 necessitates that states should value and defend the lives of everybody, therefore Article 3 obligates the state to value both physical and individual honesty of such persons. Therefore, my view here is that Article 3 does not bear on peoples authority to be alive or to come to a decision not to be alive. As a result, it cannot be in my view to reasonably suggest that the director of public prosecutions or any representatives of the United Kingdom inflicted the forbidden treatment on Diane, whose pain was due to her brutal illness.During the hearing of the case, it was also debated or suggested that Article 8 (that discusses the right to respect for family and personal life) gave Mrs. Pretty the authority to independence, assuming the authority to decide how and at what time to depart this life. However, in my view, Mrs. Prettys rights were not betrothed for the reason that Article 8 has to do with the approach in which an individual conducts his or her life as well as their physical, ethical and mental honesty. It is important to note that the home secretarys barrister also supported this view. Therefore, the hit on Article 8 ought to not make the grade on grounds that the assurance under Article 8 forbids interfering with the approac h wherein a person directs his life and it does not concern the approach wherein he or she desires to depart this life.In the case, their Lordships touched in brief on Article 9 o...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Cell And Microbial Biology At The Catholic University Of...

I am a young Saudi woman with a BS in Biotechnology degree seeking admission to the MS in Cell and Microbial Biology at The Catholic University of America. I have recently completed my English language studies at University of Washington International English Language Programs, in preparation for my graduate studies, for I have been awarded with a scholarship that covers all tuition and living expenses for the duration of my stay in the U.S. and I intend to maximize on this opportunity by earning a MS in Cell and Microbial Biology degree from The Catholic University of America My motivation to pursue such a degree stems from my personal, academic and professional experiences, which have not only shaped my character and career goals, but have also led me to this stage in my life. Initially, when I decided to specialize my undergraduate studies in the field of biotechnology, a field that for long has been mostly occupied by men in my country, I knew that I was contending an unjust social norm that in large familiarizes and accepts only male scientists, researchers and innovators. While it is true that the mentioned norm has significantly diminished in large metropolitan cities and modern urban over the last few years, as Saudi universities have recently taken to presenting their female students with unprecedented choices of programs, especially within the sciences, the prolonged social and institutional impact of the mentioned social norm is still evident to this day. ToShow MoreRelatedShould Genetic Engineering Be Controlled by Law?2870 Words   |  12 Pa gescontrolled by law?† I chose this topic because I used to study medicine at my former university. And I’m also thinking of studying biology at HPU, so I felt I have to write something about this topic. Need I say more? It is a fundamental problem related to what we are. The genetic engineering always carries lots of ethical problems. Especially, when it comes to embryonic stem cells(ESCs) which are provided from abortion. Ethicists rage about the treatment of aborted embryosRead MoreAntioxidative Property of Soursop Leaf Extract2492 Words   |  10 PagesANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTY OF SOURSOP LEAF EXTRACT A Research Proposal Presented to The Faculty of University of Baguio Science High School In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Subject Research III Quimson, Crystal Ivy O. Osias, Dymphna Xel D. Choi, Brian March 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Table of contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM Background of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Read MoreThe Antimicrobial Effect of 100% Mature Psidium Guajava (Guava) Leaf Extract on the Growth of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (Atcc # 27853)5916 Words   |  24 PagesTHE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF 100% MATURE Psidium guajava (GUAVA) LEAF EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC # 27853) A Research Proposal Presented to the Faculty of the College of Medicine Cebu Doctors’ University Mandaue City, Philippines In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement Research in Medicine II Block I, Module 2 by: Avanceà ±a, Glory O. Booc, Mark Henry C. Burgos, Dan Samuel S. Cabang, Eloise Maxine B. Conopio, Arnel Y. Cordova, Jose Reginald K. Gozo, Leoniza Gloria SRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 PagesYour WileyPLUS Account Manager Training and implementation support MAKE IT YOURS! Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Tenth Edition David A. DeCenzo Coastal Carolina University Conway, SC Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University San Diego, CA Tenth Edition Contributor Susan L. Verhulst Des Moines Area Community College Ankeny, IA John Wiley Sons, Inc. Associate Publisher Executive Editor Senior Editoral Assistant Marketing Manager

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Destiny, Fate and Free Will in Homers Odyssey - Guidance...

Guidance, Fate, and Loyalty in The Odyssey nbsp; The Odyssey is an epic poem about a journey. After the Trojan War is won Odysseus leaves Troy for his home in Ithaca. However, the gods decide to test his courage and resolve and send him on a twenty-year odyssey. Odysseus courage is constantly tested as he struggles with the many obstacles the gods place before him. Although Homer depicted The Odyssey as a self-reliant journey, in reality the gods and other mortals guide Odysseus. It is his loyalty to and his love for his family that keeps him going. The Odyssey depicts Odysseus as he overcomes each obstacle through guidance, fate, and loyalty to his family. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; To Odysseus loyalty is the most important†¦show more content†¦Odysseus shows his purity and loyalty. By Odysseus bathing he is becoming pure and clean which shows he has nothing to hide from his family because of his loyalty. He does not let women jeopardize his mind and stays faithful. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Odysseus tests Eumaeus loyalty. Eumaeus, the swineherd, is one of the few servants who have stayed loyal for twenty years. As Odysseus tests Eumaeus, Eumaeus finally tires of hearing all the lies and tells Odysseus, You too, woe-worn man how Heaven has brought you here, do not by lying tales attempt to please or win me; since out of no such cause I show respect and kindness, but out of reverence for Zeus the strangers friend, and pity for yourself (139). When Odysseus lies to Eumaeus he refuses to believe them thus passing another one of Odysseus tests. This touch of dramatic irony helps the reader appreciate the loyalty of Eumaeus who only longs for the master that stands before him. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Even though its Odysseus loyalty to his family that eventually gets him home even though the gods decide his fate. As Odysseus begins his journey homeward the gods send him on an odyssey. Odysseus fate is best described when he is told, Olympian Zeus himself distributes fortune to mankind and gives to high and low even as he wills to each... (58). Zeus decided Odysseus fate. Odysseus is sent on many smaller journeys while sent on hisShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Homer s The Odyssey 1342 Words   |  6 PagesNevertheless, loyalty can idealize as an extremity that extracts our thoughts and mental processes, which can make decisions coincide with ease especially considering who we can count on in times of need. Loyalty, many people may look upon it as actions but in all actuality it is what lies deep down inside of the mind, heart, beliefs, and character of a person. In Homer’s book The Odyssey, there is loyalty present from beginning to end and I would like to ex press how words imply loyalty on an aspectualRead MoreThe View Of Fate Over Free Will, And Vice Versa1599 Words   |  7 PagesArguments concerning the influence of Fate over Free Will, and vice versa, are not unique to our post-Enlighten mindset. Some of the greatest thinkers of all time, such as Aristotle or Plato, dealt directly with this issue in their numerous commentaries that we still look at today. Even within our Bibles we see Fate and Free Will actively playing roles within the famed stories and lives included in both the Old and New Testament. It’s not surprising, then, when we see similar themes relating to theseRead MoreEssay on The Odyssey21353 Words   |  86 PagesThe Odyssey Set in ancient Greece, The Odyssey is about the hero Odysseus long-awaited return from the Trojan War to his homeland, Ithaca, after ten years of wandering. The current action of The Odyssey occupies the last six weeks of the ten years, and the narrative includes many places - Olympus, Ithaca, Pylos, Pherae, Sparta, Ogygia, and Scheria. In Books 9-12, Odysseus narrates the story of his travels in the years after the fall of Troy, and this narrative includes other far-flung

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Contract Law Flexibility Honesty and Fairness

Question: Discuss about theContract Lawfor Flexibility Honesty and Fairness. Answer: Introduction Contract law plays a significant role in the commercial activities of any Jurisdictions. The law has created rules of practice that ensure that promotes market fairness and efficiency among the traders in Australia. It is not in doubt that the law of contract has changed and evolved immensely over the recent decade with the legislature and the judiciary making major contributions to its growth. This research paper is thus poised to keenly investigate some specific facets of contract law in Australia, including their growth and application in the real commercial world. Further, the role that these laws have played to ensure honesty fairness and justices will also be discussed. It is imperative to note that there has been a fundamental and absolute sway from the traditional approach to several doctrines in contract to ensure that parties in agreements are not left on the loosing side of the scales of justice. The law of contract has since been made more flexible. It can be argued that it has grown to be more fertile in the recent past with the room for its reform equally burgeoning. Flexibility Honesty and Fairness in the Application of Contract Law The first doctrine that shall be observed is one that the courts have shown the willingness of not giving it the strict application that was bequeathed by common law. This element of contract law is referred to as the intention to create a legal relationship in business agreements. The traditional approach that had been hitherto embraced by the courts is the application of the rebuttable presumptions test. For social agreement the presumption was that the parties did not intend to create a legal relationship between them (Merritt V Merritt 1970). For commercial agreements the presumption was that the parties in the agreement had the intention the terms in the agreement will be legally binding .What is of interest is that to promote fairness and flexibility of the judicial decisions in Australia appear to be extinguishing the traditional doctrine of rebuttable presumption test to ensure that they address each matter that comes before it with an objective eye taking all factors into co nsideration. Among the recent case that seems to extinguish the traditional doctrine of rebuttable presumption to determine the intention of the parties is Gray v Gray (2004) where the courts have shown notable reluctance in applying the presumptions test. The case concerned a loan agreement between a mother and a child and the judges said that each case should be treated as different and special to determine the intention of the parties. The courts have also recently stated in Ashton v Pratt (2014) that the courts should objectively examine the circumstances of each case because a miscarriage of justice is likely to occur if the courts solely apply the rebuttable test. It can be observed from the above contentions that the courts are keen to ensure that the parties in commercial agreements and application of contract law are treated fairly and thus it seems indispensible that some old doctrines have to be given less or no attention at all. The doctrine of Privity in contract law is a formidable rule that dictates that it is only parties to a contract who can enforce a contract. In fact, in Trident General Insurance Co. Ltd v. McNiece Bros. Pty. Ltd. (1988) the rule has been that contracts cannot be made for the benefit of third parties. Some states in Australia have since eroded this doctrine and given life to the rule that a contract can also be made fro the benefit of a third party (Property Law Act 1974 (NT) section 56). It should be borne in mind that this position is however not uniform in all states. The idea inherent in this shift in legal position is that there commercial traders who end up losing a lot money during trade because of rigid doctrines that have been inherited from common law rules. Indeed the requirement of honesty and good faith in commercial agreements has been necessary in commercial contracts to ensure that parties in the contract are treated fairly. What seems to be an overridden doctrine which was also brought by the common law is Caveat emptor. This doctrine asserts that let the buyer be ware and the seller is not obliged to disclose any information. It has been argued that the doctrine had given ample opportunity for the sellers to practice dishonesty because the task of enquiring all the status of a particular commodity is an onerous one for the buyer. This implied that if the purchaser of a commodity found that the good is not in a good condition they could not seek for compensation because they did not check the quality of the product during the purchase. It is worth noting that this gave room for the seller to give misleading and deceptive information knowing that the buyer will not bring him or her to question. A more modern approached has been emp loyed in Australia which follows the principle that the let the seller be ware (caveat venditor). In this sense there have been provisions that have been developed lately in the Australia consumer law that mainly protect the consumers and require the sellers to give product safety guarantees on their products before they engage in any commercial dealings. Pursuant to section 20 Australia consumer law (2010) misleading and deceptive conduct in commercial trade and contracts is prohibited. The courts have embraced this approached given life by the legislature and have interpreted that parties engaging in a contract should be honest and ensure that all material fact are disclosed before parties sign a commercial agreement ( Henjo Investments Pty Ltd v Collins Marrickville Pty Ltd 1988). It is apparent from the aforementioned assertions that the where a party to a commercial agreement is silent and fails to disclose material important facts required in the transaction, this will be regarded as dishonest and unfair. The general law in contract is that an agreement that has been duly signed by the parties to the contract is binding on them even when one did not read the terms of the agreement (L'Estrange v F Graucob Ltd 1934). This rule appears harsh and a remedy has been provided by the vitiating factors such as duress and undue influence. But the common law had not taken care of extreme cases where a consumer is seriously harassed by the seller, a condition that the Australian jurisdiction has said that is more detrimental than mere duress and undue influence. The legislature Australia came up with the provisions of unconscionable conduct in the Australia consumer law section 21(1) to ensure that they protect contracting parties from the harsh conduct that seeks to take advantage of another party who may be green on the subject matter that the parties are contracting. This provision of the Australia consumer law appear to be promoting fairness and honesty in the commerce and trade because if th e strict application of the general law that the contract is binding once has been signed is applied, it will be unfair to the innocent party who was induced to enter the contract and the harsh application of the law will amount to a mockery of justice. To promote fairness the courts have further held that the innocent party in the trade or commerce must show that the other party had a high bargaining power which he took advantage of (Kakavas v Crown Melbourne Ltd 2013). The forgoing assertions also have the effect of ensuring that the parties in a contract or any commercial dealing have the freewill to enter into any commercial dealing and that unnecessary pressure and inducement should not be applied to force a party to enter into an agreement. On the face of it, it may be apparent that pre-contractual good faith and honesty is not necessary in commercial dealing. In fact, traditionally English law did not have the desiderata of honesty and good faith between the parties before a contract was made (Walford v. Myles, 1992) Lately there has been a willingness and readiness that has been manifested by the judiciary to legislature to insist on the parties of an agreement or trade to uphold good faith and honesty before they enter into contract (Philips Electronique Grand Publique SA v. British Sky Broadcasting Ltd. 1995). This is not only the position of the united kingdom but Australia Consumer law has also a adopted a requirement of good faith and honesty in its provisions. Parties in a commercial dealing or trade are not supposed to engage in misleading and deceptive conduct before the contract has been formed. (Australia Consumer Law section 18). Misleading advertisements have been held to be contrary to the provisions of h onesty and good faith that is required of manufacturers and service providers. The courts have also had a high interest in ensuring that pre-contractual good faith is upheld as has ben demonstrated in Google Inc. v ACCC (2013) where the internet website Google was running advertisements on its website that were deceptive and misleading and did not reflect the true nature of the product. The court held that such a conduct was prohibited by law and found liability on the service provider in that case. It has been argued that a misleading and deceptive conduct can be in the form of assertions that lead an individual into an error or they could be false statements of fact that an ordinary person could reasonably not know the truth in them (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v TPGInternet Pty Ltd 2013). This position has now become an overarching and formidable rule created by the judiciary and the legislature. This new rule on misleading and deceptive conduct seems to be rep lacing the tradition common law rule of misrepresentation of facts. Essentially the rule seeks to promote fairness and honesty in the contracts in commercial dealings and that the sellers should ensure that they are truthful in all their engagements in commercial trade. The general in contract law is that a contract will be invalidated where either of the party that signs the contract is a minor and has not attained the age of majority. It is assumed that such persons do not have the understanding of the implications of what they are singing to. The common law position is that contract with minors will only be of necessity items such as food and clothing (Nash v Inman 1908). What is particular significance to note is the fact that there has been some willingness among some states in Australia to accept contracts that are entered into by minors as valid. The test that seems to be applied here is that one of reasonableness and ability to have the sufficient reasoning required to understand the terms in the agreed contract. This has been seen to promote justice and fairness because some minors may be intelligent and industrious enough to enter into a commercial dealing. Additionally it has also been recognized hat it should be in the interest of justic e that a person who is mentally incapacitated to enter into contract to be allowed to make an agreement during their lucid moments. This may not be the universal position in Australia but there is a judicial willingness to adopt the rule into a permanent law in some states. From a biblical perspective in the book of Isaiah, the bible proclaims that those who will survive the punishment by fire must practice fairness and honesty while they avoid gaining any benefit through fraudulent activities and avoid doing what is morally wrong (Isaiah 33:14-17) Accordingly the bile in Proverbs 11:1 argues that the practice of dishonesty and impartiality are a disgrace to the lord. As such it is perfectly demandable and desirable that in commercial dealings and trade parties should ensure that they do not benefit from what is genuinely and legally does not flow from their efforts and as has been demonstrated by the recent contract law rules developed in Australia, the major aim is to breath life into the teachings of the Holy Book. Emerging Trends The idea of electronic contract has not been there in the past because there was in development of technology case may be in the recent times. According to Martin and Jaques (2001) electronic contracts have been facing the major challenge of ensuring that they comply with the capacity provisions that are required of the traditional contracts that are made by pen and paper. It begs the critical question whether it would be just and fair to treat the electronically made contracts with the same rules that apply in the traditional contracts. It is not in dispute that there is already in existence rules regarding invitations to treat, offer and acceptance in electronic contracts. However according to Carter and Harland (2002) electronic agreements and commercial dealing defy the rule of privity of contract because a purchaser in a contract agreed in a website commerce dealing ,may fail to trace the other party in the contract to endure that they enforce the contract against them. As such it seems preposterous and unfair that one party will have to suffer a great deal of injustice because of the impracticability of the enforcement of the contract. There is also great need to promote justice and fairness in commercial dealing that are made and agreed over the mobile phones through short message service (SMS). This need was demonstrated by the courts in Communication and Media Authority v Mobiligated Ltd a company Incorporated in Hong Kong and Others (2009) where the court had the vie that injustice would most likely occasion a party in such a commercial dealing where there is little judicial ink hat has been split over the matter. Conclusion It can be conceded that the approach that has been taken by the courts and the legislations in repealing the old common law doctrines that the doctrines of equity did not sufficiently provide for has had a positive impact towards the development of fairness and justice to the parties in commercial dealings. Suffice to say innocent parties that did not hitherto have remedies against dishonest parties in trade have a reason to celebrate the new position that the judiciary and the lawmakers are taking. Parties in commercial trading should also be guided by the teachings in the bible and make peace with the fact that their ill intended actions will also be jugged by the Most High in heaven. References Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v TPGInternet Pty Ltd 2013 HCA 54 Australia consumer law (2010) Ashton v Pratt [2012] NSWSC 3 Carter, J. W. and Harland, D. J. (1993). Cases and Material on Contract Law in Australia Communications and Media Authority v Mobilegate Ltd A Company Incorporated in Hong Kong - [2009] FCA 539 Gray v Gray [2004] NSWCA 408 Google Inc. v ACCC (2013) 294 ALR 404 Henjo Investments Pty Ltd v Collins Marrickville Pty Ltd (1988) 39 FCR 546 Kakavas v Crown Melbourne Ltd Ors [2013] HCA 25 L'Estrange v F Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394 Martin, N. and Jaques, M. S. (2001). The Effective Formation of Contracts by Electronic Means. New South Wales Society for Computers and the Law Journal. Available: Merritt v Merritt [1970] 1 WLR 1211 Nash v. Inman [1908] 2 KB 1 Philips Electronique -v- British Sky Broadcasting Ltd [1995] EMLR 472 Property Law Act 1974 (NT) Trident General Insurance Co Ltd v McNiece Bros Pty Ltd. (1988) 80 ALR 574 Walford v Miles. [1992] 2 AC 128

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Psychopathy and Externalized Disorders

The prevalence of psychopathy is at 1% in society today while in other populations such as prisoners and those in mental institutions the prevalence is higher. Psychopathy is a mental condition characterized by an inability to be emotional or to develop emotional relationships.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Psychopathy and Externalized Disorders specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is usually characterized by acting on impulse, not feeling guilty, tendency to manipulate others, lack of emotions and frequent disregard of social norms. Knowledge on the prevalence and the characteristics of psychopathy is important in identifying cases of psychopathy and explaining relationships between psychopathy and social disorders such as crime. The amygdala part of the brain is responsible for various functions such as recognition of fear and other facial expressions that portray sadness. It is also associated with s ome types of learning and conditioning that relate to punishment. Studies have shown that individuals with reduced volumes of the amygdala also have higher levels of the disorder (Blair, 2003). One of the deficits associated with this condition is recognition of fear and other emotions. People who have been diagnosed with psychopathy do not easily recognize fear on other people’s faces. This has been attributed to lack of attention, especially since they do not pay attention to the eyes (Dadds, 2006). Another deficit associated with this condition is a learning deficit, especially learning through punishment. Thus, when one does something that is against social norms and they are punished for the mistake, it is expected that they avoid the behavior. People with psychopathy have a deficit with instrumental learning and often commit the same mistake (Borries, 2010). The third deficit associated with psychopathy is cognitive control. The patients are not able to vary their behav ior depending on the situation as most of the time, their behaviors and their choices are rigid. Other studies also relate the biology of psychopathy to the frontal cortex impairment, but the target population for the study is thought to have influenced the study as those involved were people with violent behaviors and not just psychopathy. Studying of the deficits and the biology of the condition is important in coming up with more distinctive features of diagnosing the condition and being able to differentiate this disorder from other disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The condition is associated with externalizing behaviors which result from mental conditions and are portrayed on the outside. Some of the externalizing problems that have been associated with the disorder are recidivism of crime, difficulty establishi ng emotional relationships, impulsive and antisocial behavior while children may be temperamental. Psychopathic individuals display this on the outside and they may be constantly involved in crimes and also lead a lonely lifestyle as they cannot be involved in emotional relationships.  The study of externalizing behavior is important in explaining factors that occur in society. It is also necessary as it will aid in coming up with the best way of handling criminals with psychopathy as punishments such as imprisonment may not be the best way to handle them as the behavior may just recur. The current study aims at establishing the role of punishment in correcting behavior among psychopathic children and also aims to see if punishment is the ideal way to correct their behavior. It is also expected that psychopathy will be related to both the male and female gender and also among all the races even though there are differences in the extent to which a particular race is affected in re lation to the other. The IV and DV are methods of simple regression used in statistical analysis. The IV value is used to determine the value of the DV. The two correlate and thus through one, we can find the information contained in the other. This study is to contribute to the understanding of the effects of psychopathy and thus provide a way in which individuals can refer to this disorder through the documented material, hence its relevance to literature. References Blair, R. J. (2003). Neurobiological Basis of Psychopathy. The British Journal of  Psychiatry, 182 (1), 5-7. Borries, A. (2010). Neural correlates of error-related learning deficits in  Individuals with psychopathy. Psychological Medicine 40 (1), 1559-1568. Dadds, R. D. (2006). Attention to the eyes and fear recognition deficits in child  Psychopathy. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 189(2) 290-281. Web.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Psychopathy and Externalized Disorders spec ifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This research paper on Psychopathy and Externalized Disorders was written and submitted by user DannyRand to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 13, 2020

How enzyme ripeness in pineapple affects the setting of gelatine Essays

How enzyme ripeness in pineapple affects the setting of gelatine Essays How enzyme ripeness in pineapple affects the setting of gelatine Paper How enzyme ripeness in pineapple affects the setting of gelatine Paper Gelatine, more commonly known as Jelly, is a substance that consists mainly of collagen, a protein found in animal tendons and skin. The gelatine used for cooking purposes is usually in the form of granules. These granules swell when they are re-hydrated in water, but only fully dissolve in hot water. As this solution cools it sets to a moisture holding gel. This gel forms due to the proteins in gelatine joining to form a web like structure. In Module 1 A-level Biology, we learn about the structure of a protein molecule. A protein molecule is formed when amino acids join together by condensation, forming a peptide bond and water as a bi-product. A chain of many amino acids is known as a polypeptide and a protein can consist of one or more of these. The opposite of condensation is hydrolysis. When hydrolysis occurs a peptide bond is broken and water is used up in the reaction. There are specific enzymes called proteases (Module 2), which can be found in fruits such as pineapple, that speed up the hydrolysis reaction that breaks down protein molecules. From research I have found that it is a protease called bromelain found in pineapple, which in the scenario is preventing the gelatine from setting by breaking up the proteins forming the web like structure. It is also in Module 1 that we learn how enzymes perform such tasks, and the conditions that best suit them. Enzymes are proteins which act as catalysts. They have a tertiary structure that provides them with an active site; a groove in the enzyme surface that combines precisely with a substrate of a specific shape and charge. The lock and key hypothesis states that the substrate binds to the active site to form an enzyme substrate complex. The substrate is then altered to form the product of the reaction and is released from the active site. The induced fit hypothesis is a more recent theory which suggests that the active site actually changes shape to mould itself to the substrate. The tertiary structure of enzymes also causes them to be sensitive to temperature and pH, and an enzyme will denature in extremes of these conditions. When an enzyme denatures it is no longer functional because the active site has changed shape and consequently the substrate molecule will not be able to combine with the enzyme. Increasing the temperature gives molecules more kinetic energy, so they collide more frequently and the rate increases. This is also true for enzymes up to a certain point: the optimum temperature. Above this temperature, enzymes vibrate so much that their structure is damaged and the active site altered. A change in pH disrupts the charges; consequently the active site cannot bind to the substrate. Plants produce fruit to acts as a delivery system for seeds. Fruit consist of carbohydrates that make them taste sweet (Module 1), providing attractive food for animals, which will help aid the dispersion of the seeds. Ageing of fruit is known as ripening, and this process is designed to stop animals from eating the fruit before the seeds are fully developed. When under-ripe, pineapples would not be appealing to animals because they are green in colour, tough to eat and acidic. There are enzymes responsible for the ripening of fruit which break down the starch content to produce more sweet sugars and make the fruit softer, making it more edible. Therefore, altering the conditions which effect enzyme rate of reaction, will effect how quickly a pineapple will ripen. Other enzyme activity increases in the fruit during ripening, due to certain hormones (such as ethylene). Applying this rule to pineapple: the bromelain enzyme activity will increase as the pineapple ripens. If I were to put a pineapple in cold conditions, this would slow down the ripening process because the enzymes responsible would have less kinetic energy, and I am therefore indirectly reducing the activity of bromelain. In this investigation scenario, when under-ripe pineapple was used in jelly, it set better than when ripe pineapple was used. Taking in to consideration the information I have found out above, I propose that this could have occurred due to a protease enzyme that breaks down the protein in the jelly, which is more active in the ripe pineapple than the under ripe pineapple. I will now plan a full investigation to prove my proposal by testing pineapples at different stages of ripeness. I will place one pineapple (A) in a freezer for two weeks to stop the ripening process. Another pineapple (B) will be placed in a freezer for one week and kept at room temperature for the second week. The third pineapple (C) will be kept at room temperature for two weeks. I will make sure that any pineapples kept at room temperature will not be placed near a window or radiator where the temperature may fluctuate. The pineapples in the freezer will be kept on the same shelf as each other. I will take the pineapples out of the freezer and place the in the fridge 24 hours before the experiment, to make sure they are all the same temperature at the start. Method I will prepare the jelly, according to instructions on the packet. I will then pour it in to four petri dishes and put it in the fridge to set. Before pouring the jelly in to the dish, I will measure 3/4 of the way up of the dish and make a mark. This mark is where I will pour the jelly up to to make sure that there is the same amount of jelly, which reaches the same height in each dish. To prepare the pineapple, I will remove the top and bottom, stand vertically and remove the skin, cut in to quarters and remove the core. I will not use the core because this is not usually eaten so does not apply to the scenario where the pineapple was being used in food. I will be as consistent as possible with each pineapple to make sure that I am using the same type of tissue. I will then place the quarters in the blender for ten seconds and place in a labelled beaker (labelled A, B or C). Blending the pineapple will break walls of the pineapple tissue, meaning that the enzymes will be more exposed and take effect more quickly than if the pineapple had not been blended. (To take place as soon as possible after step 2) I will take the petri dishes out of the fridge and with a borer make three holes, as far away from each other as possible in the jelly of each of the dishes. I will label the dishes A, B, and C, and measure the diameter of each of the holes made by the borer with a ruler. I will number each of the holes by writing the number on the lid and placing it underneath the dish with numbers in the same place as the corresponding hole. I will use a pipette to place the pineapple pulp in to the holes. Each type of pineapple will be in its own, labelled petri dish. One of the petri dishes will not have any pineapple put in it, and will be used as a control. I will then put the petri dishes back in the fridge and leave them there for seven days. This is enough time for the enzyme, of even the ripest pineapple to take effect. Any longer than this, and the liquefied gel from each hole may join up, making it difficult to take measurements. Putting the dishes back in the fridge will prevent any bacteria or foreign bodies attaching to the jelly which could effect the results. I will start the timer the minute that I have placed the pineapple into the holes, and have a different timer for each petri dish so I know they have had exactly the same amount of time in the fridge. After every 24 hours, I will remove them from the fridge again. From research I have done, I have found that enzymes in the pineapple will turn the gelatine from a gel to a liquid. I will measure the diameter of the area that is liquid and record my results in a table as below.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Teams Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Teams - Essay Example A set of strategies perceived to be suited to rectifying the Team's collaboration and sense of belongingness will be presented. Finally, a conclusion shall synthesise the main points of this paper, and reiterate the support for a team-centred culture, represented by the procedural manual, as a solution to the current Team environment. 1) Value: Having the ability to work independently - this is a value inherent in the role of an 'independent worker'. The employee is able to organize themselves, set goals, manage time, maintain their progress and evaluate their outcomes. Being able to rely on their skills and knowledge to achieve a task, the independent worker is self-reliant and often takes the initiative. Furthermore, when entering into a group assignment, the independent worker brings a wealth of knowledge, skills and competencies that contribute to the development of the group. Such diversity cultivates empathy, tolerance for differences, and appreciation for another's point of view. 2) Value: Distributed Responsibility and Leadership - each member of the Team acknowledges their accountability for their decisions and actions, and accepts that a combination of leadership styles must be available to guide and monitor group development. This value includes the consensus that a Team member needs to act in a professional manner, and that this requires a commitment to the group assignment. 3) Value: Communication - to consider others in our interactions, by being open and sincere in or contributions and conferencing. Each member of the group is expected to support the group and interact with other members to plan, problem solve and discuss Team issues. Each person will be listened to and provided with the opportunity to speak freely of their issue or suggestion. Members are encouraged to express their reservations with the current procedures and processes, as this will enhance the accuracy and relevance of the manual, as well as encourage group members to form bonds of trust, support, consideration and overall coherence. 4) Behavior - Democratic Vote - A decision will be made by the majority. As such, all members will have the opportunity to voice their points of view, while at the same time being required to justify their position. Issues which require a vote must have all Team members present. However, if the decision made is later evaluated and found to be lacking in effectiveness it will be revised and modified. 5) Behavior: Motivation - The Team aims to encourage and support each member, as when asking them about their job and issues at work. As a group, solutions will be brainstormed so that it is not the independent worker with the sole responsibility for progressing toward set goals. The Operations Manager will also review Team Development and comment on goals and progress. At meetings, praise is given for achievements, both as a group, and as individuals contributing to the group.Now to turn to the identified strengths and weaknesses of the Team's culture. Firstly, it is a strength that the Team decided upon a set of core